Prohibited Methods

The Prohibited List issued by WADA describes three prohibited methods. The modules in Antidoping Switzerland's mobile lesson provide useful information on two of these: M1 - Manipulation of Blood and Blood Components and M3 - Gene Doping. No separate module exists as yet on the prohibited method M2 - Chemical and Physical Manipulation, so we recommend you refer to the 'Analysis' module in the mobile lesson and our explanations on the control procedure.

Methods prohibited at all times (in and out of competition)

M1 Manipulation of blood

In addition to prohibited substances, the Prohibited List also lists prohibited methods. These include the manipulation of blood or blood components. It is prohibited because it improves the oxygen supply to the body.

Side effects: Several cases have been documented, for example Tyler Hamilton and Riccardo Riccò, in which athletes have been exposed to major health risks because blood samples were improperly taken, stored, transported or transfused. This can result in a life-threatening case of blood poisoning. In cases of allogeneic doping, more serious complications can occur, for example the transmission of foreign pathogens such as hepatitis viruses or HIV or blood incompatibility resulting in anaphylactic shock, which can lead to death.

M3 Gene and cell doping

The essential difference between gene doping and conventional doping is the fact that instead of doping substances, genetic material is introduced into the body.

Side effects: Changes in genetic material due to gene doping cannot be completely reversed with current medical knowledge. In addition, there are other numerous other risks from gene doping (production risk, transfer risk, genetic risk and others).

Basic information


Both in and out of competition, athletes are required to provide urine and/or blood samples. These samples are tested for prohibited substances in special anti-doping laboratories using a variety of analytical methods.

S2 M1 Blood

The module about blood explains the relationships and differences between blood formation, haematocrit, altitude training and the Athlete Biological Passport.


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