Urine Testing

The Urine Doping Control: Step by Step

The text and pictures below show a urine doping control step by step. There may be differences between tests carried out in competition, out of competition and abroad.

Notification and Identification

The control staff must provide proof of identity. The athlete receives written notification of the place, time and type of control. He is informed of his rights and obligations. The control staff ensure that the athlete’s identity has been established in the proper manner e.g. by means of an identity card, driving licence or by a third person accompanying him. The athlete should sign the doping control form to confirm that he received notification of the doping control.

In the control area

The waiting and control areas are separate from each other. The only persons allowed in the control area are the control staff, the athlete and at his request a person to accompany him and, if required, designated representatives of the national or international sporting association and an interpreter. The athlete may ask for the control procedure to be explained to him. A blood sample may be taken in addition to a urine sample (see blood doping control procedure). The athlete may eat and drink during the test. In the control area, he selects a packaged urine collection vessel. At least three collection vessels should be available to choose from. The packaging must be intact.

Providing a urine sample

When asked to provide a urine sample the athlete is accompanied by a Doping Control Officer (DCO) of the same gender. The DCO must have an unobstructed view when the sample is provided, so the athlete must remove his clothing from the abdomen down to the knees and roll his sleeves up to his elbows. This procedure should not be a cause of irritation; it is necessary to avoid any risk of manipulation. The athlete must provide at least 90 ml of urine.

Selecting a testing kit

Back in the control room, the amount of urine collected is entered on the doping control form. The athlete must select one of the testing kits provided. Each kit contains two bottles individually sealed in foil, one for sample A (red label) and one for sample B (blue label). Please be aware that there should be at least three kits to choose from, the sealed kits should be intact and the same number should appear on the kits, bottles and lids.

Filling the urine sample bottles

The foil packaging, lids and red security rings are removed from the bottles. The athlete pours the urine into the bottles himself. Firstly, about 30 ml of urine is poured into bottle B, up to the lower edge of the blue label. Then the rest, about 60 ml, is poured into bottle A with the red label. The concentration of the urine is also tested; if it is too dilute, another sample must be given.

Closing the bottles

The athlete should close each bottle with the correct lid. A rattling sound can be heard when the lids are screwed on tightly. The lids cannot be screwed in a reverse direction and the bottles cannot be reopened. The lids are cut open in the laboratory and cannot be reused.

Completing the control form

The DCO enters further details, such as the bottle numbers, on the form. The laboratory only receives the bottle numbers plus the date and time the urine sample was given, type of sport and the athlete’s gender. All other personal details remain anonymous to the laboratory staff. The urine samples are now put back in the correct packaging. The athlete should check that the doping control form has been completed correctly and in full by the DCO. In order to make it easier to carry out a doping analysis, it is suggested that any medicines that may have been taken within the previous seven days should be written down on the form.

Signing the form

The athlete should now check that the remaining part of the doping control form (pages 2 to 5) has been completed correctly and in full. Urine and blood samples may be taken at the same time and recorded on the same form. If the athlete wishes to make any comments or complaints, these can be recorded in writing on the form. The DCO, any accompanying persons and the athlete then sign the form and so confirm that the test was carried out correctly.

Concluding the control and analysis

The athlete is given a copy of the completed doping control form. This should be kept in a safe place. The athlete is informed of the result of the doping control by e-mail or by letter. The samples are sent to a laboratory for analysis. Sample A is tested initially, and if a banned substance is found in this sample, the athlete concerned has the right to demand a second analysis, of sample B.

Special case: partial sample procedure

If the athlete was unable to produce the required 90 ml of urine in one go, the urine collection vessel is closed tightly with the screw top and a security bag selected. The athlete and DCO sign the bag and its receipt strip. The urine vessel is now put into the bag and this is sealed securely. The number of the bag is entered on the control form. The athlete is given the receipt strip and must then go the waiting area until a new test can be carried out. The security bag remains closed until the athlete is ready to provide another sample, which is given in the same collection vessel. From this point onwards, the same procedure is followed as for a normal doping control, from step "filling the urine sample bottles".